Research in Dance and Physical Education
[ Article ]
Research in Dance and Physical Education - Vol. 3, No. 1, pp.1-16
ISSN: 2586-1034 (Online)
Print publication date 30 Jun 2019
Received 14 Mar 2019 Revised 01 May 2019 Accepted 25 May 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.26584/RDPE.2019.6.3.1.1

The Biopsychosocial Model and Salivary Metabolites in Modern Dancers

Lelia Rosenkrans ; Samantha E. Johnson ; Charles Rosenkrans, Jr*
University of Arkansas Little Rock, Arkansas
University of Arkansas System, Division of Agriculture, Fayetteville, Arkansas
University of Arkansas System, Division of Agriculture, Fayetteville, Arkansas

Correspondence to: * crosenkr@uark.edu

Abstract

Our objective was to establish relationships among concentrations of salivary metabolites (glucose, lactate, non-esterified fatty acid, cortisol, heat shock protein 70), acute and chronic fitness markers, and dancers’ perceptions of a modern dance class. Dancers (N = 12) completed six salivary samples on three dates: day 9, 51, and 93 of the semester, before and after a sixty-minute modern dance class. Additionally, dancers were asked to report their mental stress, physical fitness, health, class stress, and how many minutes they believe they spent working at a low, moderate, or high energy level. Largest concentrations of salivary cortisol and lactate were noted in females before class and were different (p < 0.02) from concentrations in females after class. In addition, cortisol concentrations decreased (p < 0.001) over the semester (1988, 1920, 1214 ± 259 pg/mL; respectively, day 9, 51, and 93). An interaction (p < 0.05) between time and gender affected fitness scores, as female fitness scores increased from day 9 to 51 and 51 to 93 while male fitness scores decreased over the course of the experiment. Body mass index (BMI) was positively correlated (r > 0.34; p < 0.05) with fitness and health scores and negatively correlated (r = -0.53; p < 0.01) with class stress. Our results serve as building blocks for a heightened understanding of the body’s experience during modern dance classes, and advocate for a biopsychosocial approach to analyzing dance as a source of stress relief and fitness.

Keywords:

modern dance, salivary metabolites, dance physiology, biopsycosocial model, physiology

Acknowledgments

This research was supported in part by the Arkansas Department of Higher Education Student Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF), the University of Arkansas Little Rock Department of Theatre Arts and Dance, and the Donaghey Scholars Program. Additionally, we express our gratitude to the participants of the study.

References

  • Borg G.A.V. (1982). Psychophysical Bases of Perceived Exertion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 14(5):371-81.. [https://doi.org/10.1249/00005768-198205000-00012]
  • Engel G. (1977). The Need for a New Medical Model: A Challenge for Biomedicine. Science, 196(4286):129-36.. [https://doi.org/10.1126/science.847460]
  • Facey A, Irving R, Dilworth, L. (1986). Overview of Lactate Metabolism and the Implications for Athletes. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 1(3):42-46..
  • Farrell PA, Garthwaite T, Gustafson A. (1983) Plasma Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Responses To Submaximal And Exhaustive Treadmill Exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 55(5):1441-4.. [https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1983.55.5.1441]
  • Franks PW, Wong MY, Luan J, Mitchell J, Hennings S, and Wareham NJ. (2002). Non-esterified Fatty Acid Levels and Physical Inactivity: The Relative Importance of Low Habitual Energy Expenditure and Cardio-respiratory Fitness. British Journal of Nutrition 88(3):307-13.. [https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2002663]
  • Heaney JLJ, Carroll D, Phillips AC. (2013). DHEA, DHEA-S and Cortisol Responses to Acute Exercise in Older Adults in Relation to Exercise Training Status and Sex. Age (Dordr), 35(2):395-405.. [https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-011-9345-y]
  • Jackson EM. (2013). STRESS RELIEF: The Role of Exercise in Stress Management. ACSM”s Health and Fitness Journal, 17(3):14-19.. [https://doi.org/10.1249/FIT.0b013e31828cb1c9]
  • Jensen TE, Richter EA. (2012). Regulation of Glucose and Glycogen Metabolism during and after Exercise. The Journal of Physiology, 590(5): 1069-076.. [https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2011.224972]
  • Jeong YJ, Hong SC, Lee MS, Park MC, Kim YK, Suh CM. (2005) Dance Movement Therapy Improves Emotional Responses and Modulates Neurohormones in Adolescents with Mild Depression. International Journal of Neuroscience, 115(12):1711-1720.. [https://doi.org/10.1080/00207450590958574]
  • Kulkarni BV, Wood KV, Mattes RD. (2012) Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Human Salivary NEFA with Gas-chromatography and Mass Spectrometry. Frontiers in Physiology, 3(328):1-6.. [https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2012.00328]
  • Mulla NA, Simonsen L, Bülow J. (2000) Post-exercise Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscle Lipid Metabolism in Humans: The Effects of Exercise Intensity. The Journal of Physiology, 524(3):919-28.. [https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7793.2000.00919.x]
  • Murica C, Kreutz G, Clift S, Bongard S. (2010). “Shall we dance? An exploration of the perceived benefits of dancing on well being.” Arts and Health, 2(2):149-163.. [https://doi.org/10.1080/17533010903488582]
  • Noble EG, Shen GX. (2012). Impact of Exercise and Metabolic Disorders on Heat Shock Proteins and Vascular Inflammation. Autoimmune Diseases, 2012(836519):1-13.. [https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/836519]
  • Ritter M, Graff K. (1996). Effects of Dance/Movement Therapy: A Meta-Analysis. The Arts in Psychotherapy, 23(3):249-260.. [https://doi.org/10.1016/0197-4556(96)00027-5]
  • Saeediborujeni MJ, Schaeffner E, Golkar S, Salehi M, Rashidi B. (2018). The Survey of Saliva compositional Alterations is a Non-invasive method in Determining of Multiple Sclerosis Progression in Children. Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, 12(1):109-10..
  • Shalin, K. (1986). Muscle fatigue and lactic acid accumulation. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. Supplementum, 556: 83-91..
  • Wade TD, O’Shea A, Shafran R. (2015) Chapter 9: Perfectionism and Eating Disorders. In: Sirois FM, Molnar DS (eds): Perfectionism, Health, and Well-Being. Basel, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, pp. 205-222.. [https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-18582-8_9]
  • Wyon M, Head A, Sharp C, Redding E. (2002). The Cardiorespiratory Responses to Modern Dance Classes, Differences Between University, Graduate, and Professional Classes. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, 6(2):41-45..