Research in Dance and Physical Education

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Research in Dance and Physical Education - Vol. 3 , No. 2

[ Article ]
Research in Dance and Physical Education - Vol. 3, No. 1, pp.1-16
ISSN: 2586-1034 (Online)
Print publication date 30 Jun 2019
Received 14 Mar 2019 Revised 01 May 2019 Accepted 25 May 2019

The Biopsychosocial Model and Salivary Metabolites in Modern Dancers
Lelia Rosenkrans ; Samantha E. Johnson ; Charles Rosenkrans Jr*
University of Arkansas Little Rock, Arkansas, USA
University of Arkansas System, Division of Agriculture, Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA
University of Arkansas System, Division of Agriculture, Fayetteville, Arkansas, USA

Correspondence to : *

Funding Information ▼


Our objective was to establish relationships among concentrations of salivary metabolites (glucose, lactate, non-esterified fatty acid, cortisol, heat shock protein 70), acute and chronic fitness markers, and dancers’ perceptions of a modern dance class. Dancers (N = 12) completed six salivary samples on three dates: day 9, 51, and 93 of the semester, before and after a sixty-minute modern dance class. Additionally, dancers were asked to report their mental stress, physical fitness, health, class stress, and how many minutes they believe they spent working at a low, moderate, or high energy level. Largest concentrations of salivary cortisol and lactate were noted in females before class and were different (p < 0.02) from concentrations in females after class. In addition, cortisol concentrations decreased (p < 0.001) over the semester (1988, 1920, 1214 ± 259 pg/mL; respectively, day 9, 51, and 93). An interaction (p < 0.05) between time and gender affected fitness scores, as female fitness scores increased from day 9 to 51 and 51 to 93 while male fitness scores decreased over the course of the experiment. Body mass index (BMI) was positively correlated (r > 0.34; p < 0.05) with fitness and health scores and negatively correlated (r = -0.53; p < 0.01) with class stress. Our results serve as building blocks for a heightened understanding of the body’s experience during modern dance classes, and advocate for a biopsychosocial approach to analyzing dance as a source of stress relief and fitness.

Keywords: modern dance, salivary metabolites, dance physiology, biopsycosocial model, physiology


This research was supported in part by the Arkansas Department of Higher Education Student Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF), the University of Arkansas Little Rock Department of Theatre Arts and Dance, and the Donaghey Scholars Program. Additionally, we express our gratitude to the participants of the study.

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