Research in Dance and Physical Education

Current Issue

Research in Dance and Physical Education - Vol. 3 , No. 2

[ Article ]
Research in Dance and Physical Education - Vol. 3, No. 2, pp.9-30
ISSN: 2586-1034 (Online)
Print publication date 30 Dec 2019
Received 31 Oct 2019 Revised 29 Nov 2019 Accepted 20 Dec 2019

Experimental Findings of Post-Performance Sports Massage Therapy on Stress and Mental State in Athletes
Jaimie Azusa Tani1 ; Chungmi Lee2, *
1University of Tsukuba, Ph.D Student, Japan
2University of Tsukuba, Assistant Professor, Japan

Correspondence to : *Email address:


Sports massage is a well-established form of manual intervention used to improve athletic performance. However, its impact on the biological, physiological, and psychological markers of mental state and stress remains unclear. This research seeks to elucidate the effect that sports massage, compression sleeves, and rest have on stress in the body. Stress will be quantified through amylase and cortisol levels, and on mood, expressed through Lifescore values using the program Lifescore Quick (LSQ), and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). To determine the extent of the impact that sports massage, compression sleeves, and rest have on salivary amylase (sAA), cortisol, LSQ, and POMS of a given test subject when administered after physical activity. Two subjects from the men’s soccer team were tested using a crossover design on six occasions for salivary cortisol and sAA levels, LSQ, and POMS 5 to 10 min before and after regular practice. Following the second test, research subjects moved to the testing site and underwent one of three forms of intervention: full-body sports massage, compression sleeves, or rest. After treatment, they were tested a third time. 3 × 3 ANOVA with repeated measures was used for analysis, with within-subject factors being treatment condition and time. Obtained results reveal that both sports massage and compression sleeves are effective when compared to rest on salivary cortisol, sAA, Lifescore, and POMS, though under the present experimental condition no statistical significance was obtained between the two.

Keywords: Massage therapy, Stress, Mental flexibility, POMS, Biomarkers, Individual

1. Arroyo-Morales M, Fernández-Lao C, Ariza-García A, Toro-Velasco C, Winters M, Díaz-Rodríguez L, Cantarero-Villanueva I, Huijbregts P and Fernández-De-las-Peñas C (2011). Psychophysiological effects of preperformance massage before isokinetic exercise. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(2):481-488.
2. Bosch JA, Brand HS, Ligtenberg TJ, Bermond B, Hoogstraten J and Nieuw Amerongen AV (1996). Psychological stress as a determinant of protein levels and salivary-induced aggregation of Streptococcus gordonii in human whole saliva. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58(4):374-382.
3. Brink MS, Visscher C, Coutts AJ and Lemmink KAPM (2012). Changes in perceived stress and recovery in overreached young elite soccer players. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 22:285-292.
4. Chiodo S, Tessitore A, Cortis C, Cibelli G, Lupo C, Ammendolia A, De Rosas M and Capranica L (2011). Stress-related hormonal and psychological changes to official youth Taekwondo competitions. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 21(1):111-119.
5. Crow CL (2015). The effects of massage on perceived physical soreness, pain, and markers of inflammation following high intensity unaccustomed exercise (Master’s thesis). California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, California, USA.
6. Dawson LG, Dawson KA and Tiidus PM (2004). Evaluation the influence of massage on leg strength, swelling, and pain following a half-marathon. Kinesiology and Physical Education Faculty Publications, Paper 34.
7. Diaz MM, Bocanegra OL, Teixeira RR, Soares SS and Espindola FS (2012). Response of salivary markers of autonomic activity to elite competition. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 33(09):763-768.
8. Federenko I, Wüst S, Hellhammer DH, Dechoux R, Kumsta R and Kirschbaum C (2004). Free cortisol awakening responses are influenced by awakening time. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29(2):174-184.
9. Filaire E, Bernain X, Sagnol M and Lac G (2001). Preliminary results on mood state, salivary testosterone: cortisol ratio and team performance in a professional soccer team. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 86(2):179-184.
10. Filaire E, Sagnol M, Ferrand C, Maso F and Lac G (2001). Psychophysiological stress in judo athletes during competitions. Fitness, 41(2):263-268.
11. Fries E, Dettenborn L and Kirschbaum C (2009). The cortisol awakening response (CAR): facts and future directions. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 72(1):67-73.
12. Genjo K and Matsumoto H (2016). Study on effect of plants in office on human physiological/psychological responses. 長崎大学大学院工学研究科研究報告, 46(87):50-53. (in Japanese)
13. Goi N, Hirai Y, Harada H, Ikari A, Ono T, Kinae N, Hiramatsu M, Nakamura K and Takagi K (2007). Comparison of peroxidase response to mental arithmetic stress in saliva of smokers and non-smokers. The Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 32(2):121-127.
14. Goodwin JE, Glaister M, Howatson G, Lockey RA and Mcinnes G (2007). Effect of preperformance lower-limb massage on thirty-meter sprint running. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 21(4):1028-1031.
15. Guest RJ (2010). The effects of massage on mood state, range of motion, sports performance, and perceived performance (Master’s thesis). The University of Montana, Missoula, Montana, USA.
16. Haneishi K, Fry AC, Moore CA, Schilling BK, Li Y and Fry MD (2007). Cortisol and stress responses during a game and practice in female collegiate soccer players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(2):583-588.
17. Hemmings BJ (2001). Physiological, psychological and performance effects of massage therapy in sport: a review of the literature. Physical Therapy in Sport, 2(4):165-170.
18. Hilbert JE, Sforzo GA and Swensen T (2003). The effects of massage on delayed onset muscle soreness. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 37(1):72-75.
19. Itao K, Komazawa M, Luo Z and Kobayashi H (2017). Long-term monitoring and analysis of age-related changes on autonomic nervous function. Scientific Research, 9(2):323-344.
20. Johnson EO, Kamilaris TC, Chrousos GP and Gold PW (1992). Mechanisms of stress: a dynamic overview of hormonal and behavioral homeostasis. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 16(2):115-130.
21. Kellmann M (2002). Underrecovery and overtraining: Different concepts-similar impact. Enhancing recovery: Preventing underperformance in athletes, 3-24.
22. Komazawa M, Itao K, Lopez G and Luo Z (2016). On human autonomic nervous activity related to weather conditions based on big data measurement via smartphone. Scientific Research, 8(9):894-904.
23. Komazawa M, Itao K, Lopez G and Luo Z (2017). Evaluation of heart rate in daily life based on 10 million samples database. Global Journal of Health Science, 9(9):105-115.
24. Jessop DS and Turner-Cobb JM (2008). Measurement and meaning of salivary cortisol: A focus on health and disease in children. Stress, 11(1):1-14.
25. Kivlighan KT and Granger DA (2006). Salivary α-amylase response to competition: Relation to gender, previous experience, and attitudes. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 31(6):703-714.
26. Micklewright D, Griffin M, Gladwell V and Beneke R (2005). Mood state response to massage and subsequent exercise performance. The Sport Psychologist, 19:234-250.
27. Mori H, Ohsawa H, Tanaka TH, Taniwaki E, Leisman G and Nishijo K (2004). Effect of massage on blood flow and muscle fatigue following isometric lumbar exercise. Medical Science Monitor, 10(5):CR173-CR178.
28. Nater UM and Rohleder N (2009). Salivary alpha-amylase as a non-invasive biomarker for the sympathetic nervous system: Current state of research. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34(4):486-496.
29. Noto Y, Sato T, Kudo M, Kurata K and Hirota K (2005). The relationship between salivary biomarkers and state-trait anxiety inventory score under mental arithmetic stress: A pilot study. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 101(6):1873-1876
30. O’Connor PJ, Morgan WP, Raglin JS, Barksdale CM and Kalin NH (1989). Mood state and salivary cortisol levels following overtraining in female swimmers. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 14(4):303-310.
31. Obmiński Z (2009). Pre- and post-start hormone levels in blood as an indicator of psycho-physiological load with junior judo competitors. Polish Journal of Sport & Tourism, 16(3):158-161.
32. Passelergue P, Robert A and Lac G (1995). Salivary cortisol and testosterone variations during an official and a simulated weight-lifting competition. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 16(5):298-303.
33. Rowley AJ, Landers DM, Kyllo LB and Etnier JL (1995). Does the iceberg profile discriminate between successful and less successful athletes? A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and exercise Psychology, 17(2):185-199.
34. Stroud LR, Foster E, Papandonatos GD, Handwerger K, Granger DA, Kivlighan KT and Niaura R (2009). Stress response and the adolescent transition: performance versus peer rejection stressors. Development and Psychopathology, 21(1):47-68.
35. Tanaka TH, Leisman G, Mori H and Nishijo K (2002). The effect of massage on localized lumbar muscle fatigue. BMC Complement Altern Med, 2(1):9.
36. Weerapong P, Hume PA and Kolt GS (2005). The mechanisms of massage and effects on performance, muscle recovery and injury prevention. Sports Medicine, 35(3):235-256.
37. Yamaguchi M, Takeda K, Onishi M, Deguchi M and Higashi T (2006). Non-verbal communication method based on a biochemical marker for people with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. Journal of International Medical Research, 34(1):30-41.
38. Young R, Gutnik B, Moran RW and Thomson RW (2005). The effect of effleurage massage in recovery from fatigue in the adductor muscles of the thumb. Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics, 28(9):696-701.